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Social Class, Ethnicity, Gender and Patterns of Educational Achievement : Data

Page last updated: 08/09/2019 .

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Learning objectives for this document

  1. Reading statistical tables and charts
  2. Recognition of relationships between social class , ethnicity, gender  and educational achievement.
  3. I hope that the following links will help you to navigate easily to the particular information which you may require.

 

Social Class Differences in Educational achievement:

Introduction

 

Sociological studies in advanced industrial countries including the UK have shown that educational achievements (as measured mainly by educational qualifications achieved) are closely related to social class background and that upper and  middle class students on average out perform working class students at all levels of the education system. For example, sociologists from the 1950s onwards have regularly pointed to the progressive under-representation of working class students in:  


 higher streams in primary (i.e. middle schools)
 numbers passing the 11+ examination
 numbers in higher streams in grammar schools and subsequently in comprehensives
 numbers remaining in school after the minimum school leaving age
 numbers passing O levels, gaining high grade GCSE passes and passing A levels
 numbers enrolled on undergraduate courses
 numbers involved in post graduate study.

Despite a wide range of government educational policy initiatives such as the introduction of free secondary schooling for state educated students and apparently fair, objective methods of selection (the 11+ examination) for the different types of school (Grammar, Technical, Secondary Modern) in the new Tripartite system in the 1944 Education Act, the expansion of state expenditure on education, the subsequent recognition of the limitations of the Tripartite Secondary System and its replacement almost everywhere by Comprehensive Secondary Education, the raising of the school leaving age to 15 and subsequently 16, the development of Education Priority Areas , the schools initiatives too numerous to mention of the Thatcher, Major, Blair and Brown , Coalition and Conservative administrations and the expansion of opportunities for further and higher education, it can still easily be demonstrated that working class students are less likely to be educationally   successful than are their middle class peers counterparts.

 

Social Class Differences in Educational achievement:

Social Class Differences in Educational achievement:

  1. GCSE Level,
  2. Advanced Level
  3. Access to Higher Education

 

  1. Social Class and GCSE Level Attainment

 

Source 1:Youth Cohort Studies of the educational achievements of 16 year olds 1989-2006 published on the Department for Education and Skills DfES [subsequently DCFS and now DfE] website.

[The 1989-1999 data refer to GCSE Examination results in  for England and Wales whereas the 2001-2006 data refer to England only]

Click here for the YCS Report  on 16 year olds published in 2007. Notice that  the DfE no longer publishes YCS data and that the YCS data here are the latest available.

Parental Occupation [SEG] 1989 1991 1992 1994 1996 1998 1999 2001 2003 2006
Professional/Managerial 52 58 60 66 68 63        
Other Non-manual 42 49 51 58 58 60        
Skilled Manual 21 27 29 36 36 40        
Semi-Skilled Manual 16 20 23 26 29 32        
Unskilled Manual 12 15 16 16 24 20        
Other /Not Classified 15 18 18 20 22 24        
                     
Parental Occupation [NS-SEC]                    
Higher Professional             75 77 76 81
Lower Professional             62 64 65 73
Intermediate             49 51 53 59
Lower Supervisory             34 34 41 46
Routine             26 31 33 42
Other/Not Classified             24 26 33 34

An individual's social class position is often approximated by his/her occupation  but the occupational classification schema used by the UK Government were altered in 2000 so that the statistics for 1989-1998 are not comparable with the statistics for 1999- 2006 .Nevertheless the data do show that children whose parents are in professional and managerial occupations are more likely than children whose parents are in manual occupations to gain 5 or more GCSE A*-C grade passes.

Click here for a diagrammatic presentation of these data for years 1999-2006. [Once you have reached the diagram [chart two] you may also click Sheet 1 or scroll over the diagram itself if you wish to revisit the actual statistics!]

 

Activity

  1. W hat percentages of pupils of Professional/Managerial and Unskilled Manual parents respectively gained 5 or more A*-C GCSE Pass Grades   in 1989 and 1998?
  2. The results of both of these pupil categories improved between 1989 and 1998 but what happened to the difference in results between these two pupil categories?
  3. What percentages of pupils of Higher Professional, Intermediate and Routine Occupation respectively gained 5 or A*-C GCSE Pass Grades in 2004?
  4. How would you describe the relationships between parental social class and educational achievement in general terms?
  5. Suggest three possible reasons for these relationships.

 

Source 2: GCSE Attainment and Free School Meal Eligibility

The YCS series on social class differences in educational achievement has been discontinued but the DfE continue to provide data on differences in educational achievement as between students eligible and ineligible for Free School Meals . Obviously Free School Meal Eligibility is a less than prefect measure of social class membership but these data do give some indication of the correlation between adverse economic circumstances and educational achievement at GCSE Level. Also since 2015/16 educational achievement has been measured in terms of the Progress 8 criterion and or attainment of 5 Ebacc subjects rather than in terms of attainment of 5 or more GCSE pass grades A*-C

Table : Gender, Free School Meal Eligibility and Percentages of Pupils gaining 5 or more GCSE A*-C  Grades including English and Mathematics 2008/9 - 2014/15 6/17 and percentages achieving the EBacc  [with English and Maths Grades 9-4 in 2016/7 and other subjects graded 9-4 in 2017/18] [Sources : DFE SFR Various Years:  GCSE Attainment and Pupil Characteristics: ]

Pupil Category

% gaining 5 or more A*-C GCSE Grades inc English and Maths in 2008/9

% gaining 5 or more A*-C GCSE Grades  inc English and Maths in 2009/10

% gaining 5 or more A*-C GCSE Grades inc English and maths in 2010/11

% gaining 5 or more A*-C GCSE Grades inc. English and Maths in 2011/12

% gaining 5 or more A*-C GCSE Grades inc. English and Maths in 2012/2013

% gaining 5 or more A*-C GCSE Grades inc English and Maths in 2013/14

%gaining 5 or more A*-C GCSE Grades inc English  and  Maths in 2014/15 % achieving the EBacc [with9-4 grades in English and Maths]   2016/17 % achieving the EBacc grades 9-4   2017/18

Boys FSM

23.4

28.1

31.4

32.0

33.5

29.2 29.3 7.6 7.4

Girls  FSM

29.9

34.4

37.9

40.6

42.5

38.0 37.2 13.2 13.4

Total FSM

26.6

31.2

34.6

36.3

37.9

33.5 33.1 10.3 10.4

Boys NFSM/Unclassified

50.6

55.1

58.3

57.8

59.5

55.4 56.2 20.4 20.5

Girls NFSM/Unclassified

58.1

62.7

65.8

67.5

69.8

65.7 65.8 31.4 31.8

Total NFSM/Unclassified

54.3

58.8

62.0

62.6

64.6

60.5 60.9 25.9 26.1

All Boys

47.1

51.5

54.6

54.3

55.4

51.6 52.5 18.7 18'9

All Girls

54.4

58.9

61.9

63.6

63.5

61.7 61.8 28.9 29.5

All Pupils

50.7

55.1

58.2

58.8

59.2

56.6 57.1 23.7 24.1
Gender Gap-F-M

7.3

7.4 7.3 9.3 8.1 10.1 9.3 10.2 10.6

Total NFSM-FSM Gap

27.7

27.6

27.4

26.3

26.7

27.0

27.8

15.6

15.7

 

Activity

1. Using  information in the above table  on Gender, Free School Meal Eligibility and Educational Attainment answer the following questions.

  • What percentage of all boys gained 5 or more A*-C GCSE grades including English and Maths in 2014/15?
  • What percentage of all girls gained 5 or more A*-C GCSE grades including English and Maths in 2014/15?
  • What percentages of boys eligible for FSM and ineligible for FSM/unclassified  gained 5 or more A*-C GCSE grades including English and Maths in  2014/15 ?
  • What percentages of girls eligible for FSM and ineligible for FSM/Unclassified  gained 5 or more A*-C grades including English and Maths in 2014/15?

2.

  • What percentage of all boys achieved the EBacc with English and Mathematics grades 9-4 in 2016/17?
  • What percentage of all girls achieved the EBacc with English and Mathematics grades 9-4 in 2016/17?
  • What percentages of boys eligible for FSM and ineligible for FSM/unclassified  achieved the EBacc with English and Mathematics grades 9-4 in 2016/17?
  • What percentages of girls eligible for FSM and ineligible for FSM/Unclassified  achieved the EBacc with English and Mathematics grades 9-4 in 2016/17?

 Which factor seems to be the more significant influence on educational achievement :  Gender or Free School Meal Eligibility?

3. Which factor seems to be the more significant influence on educational achievement: gender or social class?

4. However it is important to consider interrelationships between gender, free school meal eligibility and ethnicity. It can then be shown that using EBacc attainment as a measure of achievement in 2016/17 the overall size of the free school meal eligibility/all other students  gap is heavily influenced by the size of the gap among white British students who are a large majority of the total student cohort. For White British students the FSM eligibility/all other students  is far greater than the Gender gap but the reverse is true in the case of Asian students, Pakistani students, Bangladeshi students, [but not Indian students], Black African students,  Black Caribbean students and Any Other Black students. For Chinese students  the Gender gap was 12% but Chinese FSM pupils actually outperformed all other Chinese students. 

 

 

 

Source 3

The Coalition's Record on Schools: Policy, Spending and Outcomes 2010-2015 by Ruth Lupton and  Stephanie Thomson . This is  a first class paper providing  detailed, insightful information on Coalition schools policies. Scroll down to page 45-47 for detailed data and diagrams on educational attainment and free school meal eligibility. There are one or two technicalities here that you may need to discuss with your teachers!

2.Social Class and GCE Advanced Level Attainment

Source 4 and 4b: Attainment at Level 2 [ =attainment of 5 or more GCSEs at Grades A*-C or equivalent qualifications ] and Level 3 [attainment of 2 or more A levels or equivalent qualifications]

Click here  for a DFE document entitled Level 2 and Level 3 attainment by young people in England. You may then scroll down to page 8 of this document for the Section on Free School Meal Eligibility which shows attainment by FSM and the attainment gap between the FSM group and their peers at Levels 2 and 3 between 2009 and 2013. It will be seen that both of these attainment gaps are substantial and have changed little in recent years. You may summarise these results here.

 

Click here for the 2018 version of this document Click here for data on attainment at Level 3 by Free School Eligibility and Ethnicity in 2018. It will be seen that a substantial attainment gap exists between pupils eligible and ineligible for free school meals and that this gap varies substantially as between different ethnic groups

 

[Click here BBC item on technicalities of Attainment 8 and progress 8 and here for  a very  technical article]

Click here for calculation of Attainment 8 and here for calculation of Progress 8

3. Social Class and Access to Higher Education

Source 5: Focus on Social Inequality [Edited by P. Babb J. Matin and P.Haezewindt ONS 2004] provides data on relationships between social class [measured by parental occupation] and participation in Higher Education .

Percentages of 18-21 Year Olds Participating in Higher Education and Type of Parental Occupation.

 

1960

1970

1980

1990

1995

2001

2007/8: All students

[NS SEC data]

2007/8:Female students

[NS SEC data] 

2007/8: Male students

NS SEC data]

Non-Manual %

27

32

33

37

47

50

41.2 45.6 37.2

Manual %

4

5

7

10

17

19

21.0 24.5 17.8

Total %

5

8

12

19

32

35

     

The above data indicate that, for example, in 1960 27% of the children of parents in non-manual occupations participated in Higher Education compared with 4% of the children of parents in manual occupations. Also in 1960 only 5% of all 18-21 year olds   participated in Higher Education.

The final columns of the table are s taken from a 2009 Department of Business, Innovation and Skills  Paper distinguishing between Higher Education Participation Rates of  male and female students from NS SEC Classes1, 2 and 3 and NS SEC Classes 4,5,6 and7.  Clearly the 2007/8 data are based upon different social class schema and are therefore not fully comparable with the previous data.

Click here for a diagrammatic presentation of these data. [However I have not included the more recent DBIS statistics in this diagram since they are not fully comparable with the earlier data]

Click here for the most recent [2018] data on Free School Meal Eligibility and Access to Higher Education

Click here and scroll to pages 4-5 for similar data provided by  UCAS

Click here for a Channel 4 Fact Check which provides very useful information on Social Class and Access to HE.

Click here for useful article 2015

Activity

  1. What has happened to total participation in Higher Education since 1960?
  2. Briefly describe the differences in access to Higher Education between the children of non-manual occupation parents and of manual occupation parents.
  3.  Give three brief reasons why children of manual occupation parents are less likely than the children of non–manual occupation parents to participate in Higher Education.
  4. At some point you will need to investigate the possible effects of higher tuition fees on access to Higher Education.  

 

Elitist Britain : the educational background of the Britain's leading people {Sutton Trust Report June 2019]

The Educational Backgrounds of the UK Professional Elite [Sutton Trust Report March 2016]

Approximately 7% of UK pupils are educated in private schools and privately educated pupils[ especially those from prestigious Public Schools such as Eton and Harrow are disproportionately more like to secure employment in elite occupations. The above report provides very detailed information on this issue . It also has a clear concise Executive Summary.

Office of National Statistics Data 2011  indicate that  individuals ’ educational qualifications have a major impact on their earnings potential .

Click here for the relevant ONS publication

The above data illustrate  that there are very significant social class differences in educational achievement and also that higher educational achievements are associated with higher earnings.

  • The Youth Cohort Study data indicate strong relationships between parental social class and educational achievement at GCSE level.

  • Pupils eligible for free school meals are on average less successful at GCSE level than pupils not eligible for free school meals.

  • The same applies to Level 3 Qualifications [Source 4]

  • There are strong relationships between social class membership and participation in Higher Education .

  • There are strong relationships between educational qualifications and earnings for both men and women

Taken in combination these findings mean that many working class children are themselves unlikely to earn high incomes in adult life because of their limited educational qualifications. Class advantage is to some extent transmitted from generation to generation although many working class children are successful in education and socially mobile in their employment careers.

 

Ethnic Differences in Educational Achievement:

Ethnic Differences in Educational Achievement:

  1. GCSE Level,
  2. Advanced Level
  3. Access to Higher Education

 

  1. Ethnicity and  GCSE Level Attainment

The following information is extracted   from the Youth Cohort Study of 16 Year olds published in Feb 2005 and amended in June 2006. It illustrates trends in educational achievement at GCSE level [as measured by attainment of 5 or more GCSE grades A*-C in Year 11] between 1989 and 2004 according to the  ethnicity of the students estimated on the basis of   samples which range between  24922 and 13,698.

Subsequently much greater emphasis came to be placed on the percentages of students achieving 5 or more GCSE subjects including English and Mathematics and in the two final columns  I have now included 2014/15  data for students achieving 5 or more GCSE grades A*-C [Column A] and for students achieving 5 or more GCSE Grades A*-C including English and Mathematics [Column B].

Subsequently achievement levels have been measures in terms of the Progress 8 statistic and the attainment of 5 EBacc subjects at grades A*-C and most recently grades 9-4 or 9-5. Achievement levels based  upon these most recent criteria are shown below.  

Attainment of 5 or more GCSE grades in Year11 by ethnicity 1989-2004 and 2014/15

Year

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

2001

2002

2003

2004

2014/15 A 2014/15 B

Weighted sample

14116

 

14511

24922

 

18020

 

15899

 

14622

 

13698

 

16707

 

14003

   

Percentage of the group defined at each row

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   
White

30

 

35

37

 

43

 

45

 

47

 

50

 

52

 

55

65.6 56.8

Black

18

 

19

23

 

21

 

23

 

29

 

29

 

36

 

34

64.1 52.0
Black Caribbean                                 58.1 45.9

Asian

29

 

26

33

 

36

 

38

 

45

 

48

 

52

 

55

71.1 61.1
  • Indian

n/a

 

n/a

38

 

45

 

48

 

54

 

60

 

60

 

72

80.8 72.1
  • Pakistani

n/a

 

n/a

26

 

24

 

23

 

29

 

29

 

40

 

37

62.4 51.6
  • Bangladeshi

n/a

 

n/a

14

 

20

 

25

 

33

 

29

 

41

 

45

72.6 62.2
  • Other Asian

n/a

 

n/a

46

 

50

 

61

 

61

 

72

 

64

 

65

75.0 65.1
  •  Chinese

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  86.8 76.6
                                     

 The above   data indicate that the attainments of all ethnic groups listed have improved very substantially between 1989 and 2004 and between 2004 and 2014/15. The Following points should be noted.

  • Data for Chinese students were not available in the YCS source but it is clear that Chinese students are the most successful of all ethnic groups at GCSE Level.
  • Indian students narrowly outperformed White students in 1992 but by 2014/15 the achievement gap between Indian students and White students increased significantly.
  • The relative performance of Bangladeshi students has improved significantly and by 2014/15 they were out performing White students.
  • By 2014/15 White students continued continued to outperform Pakistani students but the achievement gap was narrowing.
  • By 2014/15 White students continued to outperform Black students but the achievement gap was narrowing.

 

  • By 2014/15 White students continued to outperform Black Caribbean students but the achievement gap was narrowing.

  In the above table important subdivisions within the White Category and students of mixed ethnicity have not been included and the data on the various ethnic groups have not been subdivided according to gender and free school meal eligibility. By 2016/17 a new system of evaluation was in place and in the following source I include full data on ethnicity ,gender and free school meal eligibility for the 2017/8  GCSE results in England.  Notice that , very importantly, data on Traveller and Gypsy Roma pupils are included in these more recent data 

 

Exercise on Ethnicity and Educational Achievement at GCSE Level in the 2018 Examinations

Let us investigate ethnic patterns of achievement using performance in EBacc subjects in 2017 as indicated in Table 2a of the 2018 publication. With regard to English and Mathematics I refer to attainment levels between 9-4 for all pupils. I have copied and pasted the relevant table here but students may also use the above link to refer to separate data for males and females and to  data on Attainment 8 and Progress 8 if they so wish.

 
Table CH2a: GCSE and equivalent entries and achievements of pupils at the end of key stage 4 by ethnicity, free school meal eligibility and gender
Year: 2017/181 (revised)              
Coverage: England, state-funded schools (including Academies and CTCs)2 Please select criteria below:    
      Measure: Percentage achieving the English Baccalaureate (9-4 grade) (7)
      Gender: All
  2 38 74   2 38 74
  Number of eligible pupils3   Percentage achieving the English Baccalaureate (9-4 grade) (7)
  Pupils known to be eligible for free school meals All other pupils(9) All pupils(10)   Pupils known to be eligible for free school meals All other pupils(9) All pupils(10)
All pupils10 66,365 457,261 523,626   10.4 26.1 24.1
               
White 44,327 352,353 396,680   7.0 24.8 22.8
   white British 41,457 326,223 367,680   6.3 24.3 22.3
   Irish 188 1,458 1,646   13.8 37.5 34.8
   traveller of Irish heritage 67 44 111   0.0 4.5 1.8
   Gypsy / Roma 344 763 1,107   0.6 1.8 1.4
   any other white background 2,271 23,865 26,136   20.1 31.0 30.0
Mixed 4,396 20,250 24,646   11.9 30.0 26.7
   white and black Caribbean 1,614 5,479 7,093   7.0 18.8 16.1
   white and black African 558 2,378 2,936   13.3 28.3 25.4
   white and Asian 709 4,828 5,537   14.7 38.5 35.4
   any other mixed background 1,515 7,565 9,080   15.3 33.2 30.2
Asian 8,610 47,127 55,737   19.2 33.4 31.2
   Indian 957 13,618 14,575   25.2 43.2 42.0
   Pakistani 4,364 18,476 22,840   15.8 24.8 23.1
   Bangladeshi 2,256 7,128 9,384   20.7 29.5 27.4
   any other Asian background 1,033 7,905 8,938   24.6 40.2 38.4
Black 5,912 23,037 28,949   16.9 25.4 23.7
   black Caribbean 1,531 5,402 6,933   7.6 17.2 15.1
   black African 3,639 14,719 18,358   21.2 29.0 27.5
   any other black background 742 2,916 3,658   15.1 22.3 20.9
Chinese 107 1,768 1,875   39.3 54.4 53.5
any other ethnic group 1,980 6,593 8,573   24.2 31.8 30.1
              Source: key stage 4 attainment data
1.  Includes entries and achievements by these pupils in previous academic years.
2.  State-funded schools include academies, free schools, city technology colleges, further education colleges with provision for 14- to 16-year-olds and state-funded special schools. They exclude independent schools, independent special schools, non-maintained special schools, hospital schools and alternative provision (including pupil referral units, AP free schools and AP academies as well as state-funded AP placements in other institutions).
3.  Pupils at the end of key stage 4 who are included in the measure.
4.  Attainment 8 and Progress 8 are part of the new secondary accountability system that was implemented for all schools from 2016. Users should be cautious when comparing Attainment 8 scores between 2017 and 2016. In 2017, Attainment 8 scores were calculated using slightly different point score scales in comparison to 2016, in order to minimise change following the introduction of 9-1 reformed GCSEs. This means that Attainment 8 scores are likely to look different in 2017, as a result of changes to the methodology.  More information on the calculation of these measures is available in the Progress 8 guidance:

 

Using the above data answer the following questions

  1.  Rank the broad ethnic categories in terms of the achievement of all pupils [Final Column]
  2. Which is the highest performing and the lowest performing broad ethnic group?
  3. Describe the ethnic differences in attainment within each ethnic category
  4. Notice especially the attainment levels of students in the Traveller of Irish Heritage and Gypsy Roma categories.
  5. Which is the highest performing and and lowest performing "narrow ethnic category"?
  6. Use your calculator to calculate the proportions of pupils eligible for free school meals in each ethnic category
  7. For all pupils what is the percentage gap in attainment between pupils eligible and ineligible for free school meals?
  8. In which broad ethic category is the gap in attainment between pupils eligible and ineligible for free school meals greatest?
  9. What is significant about the gap in attainment between Chinese pupils eligible and ineligible for free school meals?
  10. Can you give any reasons why the attainment gap between pupils eligible and ineligible for free school meals varies as between different ethnic groups.?
  11.  Discuss these statistics with your fellow students. Any other insights?
  12. You will also find that females out perform males in every ethnic category and that it is white boys eligible for free school meals who perform particularly badly.
  13. The overall attainment gap between pupils eligible for free school meals and pupils ineligible for free school meals is greater than the overall attainment gap between female and male students. Numerically this occurs because the FSM eligibility gap is very high [18.2%] for white British students who account for a very large proportion of the total student population. However in several ethnic categories [Pakistani, Bangladeshi, Black Caribbean , Chinese] the gender attainment gap is greater than the FSM eligibility attainment gap. [You would need to look at other Characteristics National tables to confirm this latter point.]
  14.  Write two paragraphs summarising the relationships between ethnicity, gender , free school meal eligibility and attainment at GCSE level

 

Sociologists have suggested three main types of explanation for the above relationships between ethnicity, free school meal eligibility and educational achievement.

         It is suggested that eligibility for free school meals is an imperfect measure of the relative economic  deprivation suffered by pupils of different ethnic groups and that more accurate measures of economic deprivation would show that economic deprivation is a more important explanatory factor than the free school meals data suggest.[ As mentioned, several methods may be used to measure levels of economic deprivation but the comparison of these methods is technically complex and I shall not consider this point any further here. ]

         It is suggested that the differential educational achievements of different ethnic groups may be explained partly by a range of cultural factors operative for some ethnic groups  so that some ethnic groups are more successful than others in overcoming the effects of material deprivation. It is widely believed  Indian and Chinese families are especially likely to value education highly and that these cultural attitudes enable poor Indian and Chinese students to offset more effectively the effects of poverty.

          Note that on the basis of the above data the NFSM-FSM discrepancy is smaller in all ethnic minority groups than it is among white students.

         Others have is suggested that the cultural differences between ethnic groups have been much overstated and that  instead a range of processes internal to the schools themselves may operate to the relative disadvantage of some ethnic groups rather than others. Thus for example poor Afro-Caribbean students and also poor white students may be more likely than poor Chinese and Indian students to experience negative labelling in schools.

The gaps in attainment for white pupils eligible and ineligible for free school meals are greater than for any other ethnic group and this has generated considerable concern as to the prospects of white working class students although free school meal eligibility is a less than perfect measure of social class membership. This topic will be considered in more detail presently.

[These links have already been included above in the coverage of free school meal eligibility and attainment at Level 3 but they also contain information on ethnicity and attainment at Level Three] 

Click here  for a DFE document entitled Level 2 and Level 3 attainment by young people in England. You may then scroll down to page 8 of this document for the Section on Free School Meal Eligibility which shows attainment by FSM and the attainment gap between the FSM group and their peers at Levels 2 and 3 between 2009 and 2013. It will be seen that both of these attainment gaps are substantial and have changed little in recent years. You may summarise these results here.

Click here for the 2018 version of this document Click here for data on attainment at Level 3 by Free School Eligibility and Ethnicity in 2018. It will be seen that a substantial attainment gap exists between pupils eligible and ineligible for free school meals and that this gap varies substantially as between different ethnic groups

Click here for the 20198 version of this document.

Click here for ethnicity and very good A level Results

 

Click here for a summary of Socio-economic, ethnic and gender differences in HE participation  [Institute for Fiscal Studies November 2015] and here for the very detailed full report

Key findings

Click here for the most recent [2018] data on Free School Meal Eligibility and Access to Higher Education

Notice that the following two links refer to Access To HE from State Schools. It is important to note that large proportions of students gain access to Oxford, Cambridge and Russell Group universities via private schools which may well mean that the overall percentages of white students at these universities are greater that the data based only on SFM [state funded mainstream schools] suggest.

Click here for Ethnicity, FSM Eligibility and Access to HE 2017

Click here and then on  Destination of KS4 and KS5pupils 2017 : Key stage5 National Tables  and then on Contents and then on NA22 [Disad eth] SFM

Click here for ethnicity and differences in student outcomes

More detailed information on Gender and Educational Achievement may be found in my documents on Gender and Educational Achievement and Gender and Subject Choice. However the main points in relation to gender and educational achievement ts in England and Wales are  as listed below

 

  1. Gender  and GCSE Level Attainment

2. Gender and GCE Advanced Level  Attainment

3. Gender and Access to Higher Education

Recent Data from the Higher Education Statistics Agency  20117/18

 Click here for HE  Student Enrolments and  Personal Characteristics 2012/13- 2 017/18 Females continue to be more likely than males to enrol for Higher Education Courses. Some students self- identify as "Other" rather than male or female

 Click here for HE Enrolments by Subject Area and Sex. The gender differences in subject choice which occur at Advanced Level continue in Higher Education .

Gender Differences in Degree Results 2011/12- 2016/17

These statistics may be summarised as follows. Females are now marginally more likely than males to gain First Class Honours Degrees and quite significantly more likely than males to gain Upper Second Class Degrees

  Ist Class % 2:1 % 2:2% 3rd/Pass%
Male 2011/12 17 46 29 8
Female 2011/12 17 51 26 6.5
Male 2013/14 20.1 47.2 26.2 6.5
Females  213/14 20.0 52.5 22.7 4.8
Males 2014/15 22 47 25 6
Females 2014/15 22 52 22 5
Males 2015/16 24 47 23 6
Females 2015/16 24 51 20 4
Males 2016/17 25 47 23 6
Females 2016/17 26 51 19 4
Males 2017/18 27 26 21 5
Females 2017/18 28 50 18 4